Mothers of very young children and the total workforce: American Community Survey 2011-15 five-year averages calculated by NWLC using Steven Ruggles et al., IPUMS: Version 6.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2015. Median hourly wage of occupations (used to determine low-wage occupations): Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Occupational Employment Statistics (OES), May 2015 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates,
Average cost of full-time infant care at child care centers: Child Care Aware, Parents and the High Cost of Child Care 2016 Report, Appendix Table 1: 2015 Average Annual Cost of Full-Time Center-Based Child Care by State,
Child poverty rates: NWLC calculations based on U.S. Census Bureau, 2015 American Community Survey,
Minimum wages: U.S. Department of Labor, Minimum Wage Laws in the States, January 1, 2017, available at


Mothers of very young children are those who have at least one child age 3 or younger at home. Figures are for all employed workers. “Low-wage” occupations are those with median hourly wages of $10.50 or less per hour.